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AnalogMagik Tutorial No. 6:  Optimizing Load & Gain on 
your Phono Stage
(On both Version 1 & Version 2)

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Optimal Loading


Most Phono preamps for MC cartridges or Step-up Transformers will allow users to choose different loading choices to match with their cartridges.    Cartridges manufacturers will also provide a suggested loading range.    However, the actual loading requirements for each cartridge is affected by a number of different factors such as different tonearm cable lengths, which will affect capacitance and resistance.   Most manufacturers will advise users to choose a loading which "sounds best" to their ears.   We believe there is nothing wrong with going with your ears, but AnalogMagik attempts to provide for you a more scientific and repeatable approach to optimizing loading. 

Changing the resistive loading has the same effect as "Pushing the bars" on an equalizer up or down, it will affect the frequency response, and to a lesser degree the amplitude of the signal.    If accurate signal retrieval is our goal, then the optimal Loading would be one which causes the least amount of change to the frequency response of what was originally recorded on the LP.

With the Analog Magik "Loading" Test track, AnalogMagik will display the flatness of the Frequency Response curve specific to your choice of loading.    Simply change the loading and repeat the measurements to compare the flatness of the Frequency Response curve which is expressed in decibels.   The optimal Loading will correspond to one which displays the lowest number in decibels. 

Meaningful numbers are dependent upon cartridge quality as well as the accuracy of all the setup parameters.    You should always perform the loading test after adjusting all other setup parameters.  

When performing this test, the volume knob on the sound card should remain constant.   The only variable should be the loading on your phono stage.

It is essential to play the track in its entirety and observe the result only when the entire track has been played.  This is give you a more accurate result.

Optimal Gain


Some Phono stages will offer different GAIN levels to accommodate different cartridges, however, most manufacturers will simply ask you to choose a GAIN level best suited for your ear.    There is nothing wrong with that, and we do that too.  But if we are selling a tool with the goal to deliver accurate vinyl playback, then around to tell you that "our ears are the benchmark", then we are not doing our job.    Our sensitivity to high frequencies diminishes over time, so it is not quite reliable a benchmark.

AnalogMagik attempts to come up with a more scientifically repeatable method of setting gain levels. 

AnalogMagik believes the Optimal Gain level is one which yields the highest Signal to Noise Ratio.  Play the OPTIMAL GAIN TEST TRACK on the 33 1/3 rpm TEST LP, and observe the behavior of the Signal to Noise Ratio.    Repeat the measurement under different GAIN settings on your phono stage.   If a correlation can be found, chose the GAIN level which yields the highest Signal to Noise Ratio, look for the highest set of numbers in decibels. 

In some very high-quality phono stage and preamplifiers,  the Signal to Noise Ratio can produce excellent readings across all gain settings, in such cases, there will be no observable differences in the S/N Ratio.   We have also encountered scenarios where external factors such as tube noise, oscillations or grounding problems which will render unstable numbers.  Under circumstances beyond our control, the numbers will be rendered meaningless.   It does not mean the program is not working, it just means the unstable noise level is adversely affecting the reading leading to unstable results.

It is essential to play the track in its entirety and observe the result only when the entire track has been played.  This is give you a more accurate result.

User Feedback




Check out the positive feedback by the Audio Measurement & Analytics Group:   

Verifying AnalogMagik's Loading Optimization Function (By Bing R. Tsai):

"I was somewhat doubtful this would actually work before running this set of tests. In my earlier experiments, I've found using a MC step-up transformer with various loading values in the phono stage would definitely impact the measured frequency responses. But I had been of the belief that, for the case of MC cartridges without using a step-up transformer, even though the impedance settings would impact the perception of overall tonal balance, the effects should be only in the harmonic compositions or even in the ultrasonic frequency range, presumably expecting no difference in normal frequency response measurements.


However, the test results below quite clearly indicate the 500-ohm value indeed leads to the best "flatness" measurements in AnalogMajik. And in fact, this is the value I had found most agreeable with my ears before running the measurements.

I have run the tests using the Avid Pulsare II phono stage, with easily adjustable resistance settings of 10, 30, 100, 300, 500, 1k, 5k, 10k and 47k ohms. Only the most relevant data is shown below. All other values clearly result in inferior flatness data to the 500-ohm setting."















































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